In-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo photoprotective effect of three lyophilized extracts of Sedum telephium L. leaves.
Sedum telephium L. is a medicinal plant used in antiquity to cure many types of inflammatory skin diseases. The leaves (without the external cuticle), are used to promote healing and reduce skin inflammation and pain, and contain various components. We found two major components: flavonol glycosides and polysaccharides, with molecular weight between 13,000 and 13,500 Da. We evaluated the in-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo skin photoprotective effects of three lyophilized extracts obtained from the juice of S. telephium L. leaves: a total lyophilized juice, a lyophilized flavonolic fraction, and a lyophilized polysaccharidic fraction. Two in-vitro models were used: the bleaching of the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical, and the protective effect against UV-induced peroxidation on phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles, as model membranes. The antioxidant/radical scavenging activity of each lyophilized extract was also assessed in-vivo by determining their ability to reduce UVB-induced skin erythema (monitored by reflectance spectrophotometry) in healthy human volunteers. The findings of the in-vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that, unlike the lyophilized polysaccharidic fraction, the lyophilized flavonolic fraction and total lyophilized juice possess strong antioxidant/free radical scavenging properties, which are likely due to phenolic compounds. Consistent with these findings, gel formulations of both the total lyophilized juice and, to a greater degree, the lyophilized flavonolic fraction appeared to possess a strong protective effect against UV-induced skin erythema in-vivo, whereas the lyophilized polysaccharidic fraction was completely ineffective. The in-vitro and in-vivo results suggest that, both the total lyophilized juice and, in particular, the lyophilized flavonolic fraction, but not the lyophilized polysaccharidic fraction of S. telephium L. leaves, have photoprotective effects against UVB-induced skin damage.