Attachment and entry of many viruses are mediated by their affinity for polysaccharides present on the surface of target cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that sulfated glucans isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) can be utilized as experimental drugs exerting strong antiviral activity. In
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) causes severe yield losses in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. Studies have shown that the mechanisms of DNA methylation-mediated plant defense against DNA viruses and RNA viruses are different. However, in rice its function in response to infection of
Small RNA-mediated gene silencing plays evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense against invasive nucleic acids. Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) are one of the key elements involved in RNA silencing-based antiviral activities in plant and insect.
Plant RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 (RDR1) is a key component of the antiviral RNA-silencing pathway, contributing to the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs. This enzyme also is responsible for producing virus-activated endogenous small interfering RNAs to stimulate the
Plant Xrn4 is a cytoplasmic 5' to 3' exoribonuclease that is reported to play an antiviral role during viral infection as demonstrated by experiments using the Xrn4s of Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Meanwhile, little is known about the anti-viral activity of Xrn4 from other plants.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) from fungi, plants and some invertebrate animals play fundamental roles in antiviral defense. Here, we investigated the role of RDR6 in the defense of economically important rice plants against a negative-strand RNA virus (Rice stripe virus, RSV) that causes
Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed gene silencing plays a major role in antiviral defense. Virus-derived siRNAs inhibit viral replication in infected cells and potentially move to neighboring cells, immunizing them from incoming virus. Viruses have evolved various ways to evade and suppress
RNA silencing has evolved as a widespread antiviral strategy in many eukaryotic organisms. Antiviral RNA silencing is mediated by virus-derived small RNAs (vsiRNAs), created by the cleavage of double-stranded viral RNA substrates by Dicer (Dcr) in animals or Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in plants.
Protein microbicides containing neutralizing antibodies and antiviral lectins may help to reduce the rate of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) if it is possible to manufacture the components in large quantities at a cost affordable in HIV-endemic regions such as sub-Saharan Africa.