Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Veronica spicata L. (Plantaginaceae).
Tea made from Veronica spicata L. (syn. Pseudolysimachion spicatum (L.) Opiz, family Plantaginaceae) herb is used in traditional medicine as expectorant for cough and throat rinsing. To get insight into chemical compounds of V. spicata, the essential oil content (analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS), the content of phenolic compounds (analysed by HPLC), the content of macroelements and trace elements (analysed by ICP-AES), quantity of total phenols and total flavonoids (analysed by UV/Vis spectrophotometer), and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. The main compounds of the essential oil were phytol (21.13%), heptacosane (10.22%) and pentacosane (8.91%). The most abundant investigated macroelement was K (8261 mg/kg) while Fe was the most represented element (32.49 mg/kg) among investigated micronutrients. Ten phenolic compounds (chrysin, rutin, quercitrin, quercitrin, and cichoric, ferulic, protocatehuic, rosmarinic, syringic and tannic acid) were identified and quantified. Additionally, V. spicata extract demonstrated notable radical-scavenging and chelating properties. The bacterial and fungal strains used in study were found to be susceptible toward methanolic and ethyl-acetate extracts with MIC values between 1.25 and 5.00 mg/mL using microdilution method. Aquose extracts were found to be antimicrobial inactive.