Rosa damascena Mill. is prescribed for the management of chest and abdominal pain, constipation, digestive disorders, menstrual bleeding and liver ailments.The current review compiles up to date and complete information of whole plant of R. damascena with particular emphasis on its numerous scientifically proved pharmacological effects, traditional and folk medicinal uses.The data on the pharmacological effects of R. damascena were collected from various databases such as PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Elsevier and Web of Science using the keywords like phytoconstituents, pharmacology, medicinal uses and biological activity of R. damascene. Rosa damascena has a wide spectrum of bio-pharmacological activity like antidepressant, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and antimicrobial. The main ingredients of R. damascena essential oil responsible for pharmacological activity are geraniol and citronellol. Its uses have been widely accepted in traditional system of medicines for the management of numerous diseases of human beings in different dosage forms.Rosa damascena has a significant place in traditional system of medicine. It is cost-effective and an important plant with curative application in contemporary medicine. Further studies on the characterization of chemical constituents and scientific basis of pharmacological activity of R. damascena should be carried out to evaluate its impact on traditional system of medicines. Large-scale preclinical and clinical trials will be beneficial in investigating the mechanism of the therapeutic potential of R. damascene to explore its uses in pharmaceutical industries.