Regulation of NF kappaB activity is central to many processes during development and disease. Activation of NF kappaB family members depends on degradation of inhibitory I kappaB proteins. In Drosophila, a nuclear gradient of the NF kappaB/c-rel protein Dorsal subdivides the embryonic dorsal-ventral
Drosophila host defense to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infection is mediated by the Spaetzle/Toll/cactus gene cassette. It has been proposed that Toll does not function as a pattern recognition receptor per se but is activated through a cleaved form of the cytokine Spaetzle. The upstream
Calcium-dependent cysteine proteases of the calpain family are modulatory proteases that cleave their substrates in a limited manner. Among their substrates, calpains target vertebrate and invertebrate IκB proteins. Because proteolysis by calpains potentially generates novel protein functions, it is
Prickly pear cactus has been an important food source in Mexico since ancient times due to its economical and ecological benefits and potential nutraceutical value. Nevertheless, studies on the nutritional aspects and health benefits have been scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess,
The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor
The antifungal defense of Drosophila is controlled by the spaetzle/Toll/cactus gene cassette. Here, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding a blood serine protease inhibitor, Spn43Ac, was shown to lead to constitutive expression of the antifungal peptide drosomycin, and this effect was
Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production
Hepialus xiaojinensis is an economically important species of Lepidopteran insect. The fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis can infect its larvae, which leads to mummification after 5-12 months, providing a valuable system with which to study interactions between the insect hosts and pathogenic fungi.
We tested 11 Bombyx mori cell lines for induction of cecropin B gene (CecB) expression. After the immune challenge, CecB expression was induced in seven cell lines. A mixture of the cell-free supernatant from the immune-responsive cell lines and lipopolysaccharide activated a promoter of CecB in the
Twelve maternal effect genes (the dorsal group and cactus) are required for the establishment of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis in the Drosophila embryo. Embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity is defined within the perivitelline compartment surrounding the embryo by the ventral formation of a ligand
Turbellarian flatworms lend themselves to neurobiological investigations using intracellular iontophoresis of Lucifer yellow provided that one is able to anesthetize the animal and expose the nervous system. This paper details the methods used with the polyclad Notoplana acticola and the rhabdocoel
The nuclear activity of Rel/NFkappaB transcription factors is tightly regulated from the cytoplasmic compartment by an inhibitory subunit called IkappaBalpha. IkappaBalpha is rapidly phosphorylated and degraded in response to the stimulation through tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) receptor,
Fungi have a diverse spectrum of extracellular enzymes. In nature, extracellular enzymes primarily serve to procure nutrients for the survival and growth of the fungi. Complex polymers such as lignocellulose and starch as well as proteins and fats are broken down into their basic building blocks by
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a
Cathepsin D belongs to aspartic protease family, produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and then transported to lysosomes, where it participates in various physiological processes. Despite its importance, only a few reports available on the functional role of cathepsin D in crustaceans.