[THE ROLE OF ANTISEPTICS AND STRATEGY OF BIOFILM REMOVAL IN CHRONIC WOUND].
Chronic wound does not heal within the expected time frame because it remains in the inflammation phase of healing. The reason for this is the presence of necrotic tissue and a large number of microorganisms, primarily bacteria that secrete the biofilm, along with ischemia, hypoxia and edema. Biofilm is present in 90% of chronic wounds and 6% of the acute ones. Biofilm is a corporative association of microbes which adhere to the surface of the wound, guided by quorum sensing molecules. The association is surrounded by a moisturizing matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (slime) which protect the microbes from the impact of antibiotics, antiseptics, macro-organism defense and stress. Biofilm is the primary cause of the wound chronicity because it causes permanent inflammation, delayed granulation tissue formation and migration of epithelium cells, thus providing a reservoir of microbes that lead to infection of the chronic wound. The aim of good clinical practice is to enable healing of a chronic wound within the expected time frame. In order to achieve this aim, it is necessary to reduce and thoroughly remove the biofilm from the wound and prevent its reappearance. This is achieved by the application of active anti-biofilm compounds and procedures that disintegrate the quorum sensing molecules, degrade the extracellular polymeric substances and block adherence to the surfaces. Recent researches have shown that the application of antiseptics is effective in the prevention of infection and is a support to targeted treatment. However, the fact is that only some antiseptics are applicable to chronic wounds and can have an impact on biofilms of the primary infective agents such as Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective antiseptics are octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanides, povidone and cadexomer iodine, nanocrystal silver and Manuka-type honey. Immobile biofilm is a persistent problem of chronic and chronic infected wounds. In fact, there is no isolated therapeutic procedure or an individual antiseptic that can fully destroy the biofilm. For this reason, modern strategy in the management of chronic wound applies a multimodal approach which combines mechanical-chemical procedures such as debridement, antiseptics, and antimicrobial supportive compresses. Debridement creates a therapeutic 'window' for the action of antiseptics and antibiotics in a 72-hour period, which enables removal of the biofilm and active destruction of the sessile and planktonic bacteria. This approach also prevents de novo formation of the biofilm. The above procedures must be intensively repeated, and antiseptics and supportive compresses changed, depending on the phase of the wound bed and comorbidity factors in the patient. The results of clinical studies show that only such a proactive approach to chronic wound enables achievement of healing within the expected period of time.