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Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase (Ans) catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of
Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), encoded by the BANYULS gene, is a newly discovered enzyme of the flavonoid pathway involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins. ANR functions immediately downstream of anthocyanidin synthase to convert anthocyanidins into the corresponding 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols.
Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) from Arabidopsis thaliana is a non-haem iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase reported to catalyse the conversion of leucoanthocyanidins to anthocyanidins. Anthocyanidins are precursors of anthocyanins, which are a major family of pigments in higher plants. ANS was crystallized
Condensed tannins (CTs) are flavonoid oligomers, many of which have beneficial effects on animal and human health. The flavanol (-)-epicatechin is a component of many CTs and contributes to flavor and astringency in tea and wine. We show that the BANYULS (BAN) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and
Flavonoids are common colorants in plants and have long-established biomedicinal properties. Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), a 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase, catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the anthocyanin class of flavonoids. The crystal structure of ANS reveals a
Reaumuria trigyna is a typical, native desert halophyte that grows under extreme conditions in Inner Mongolia. In a previous transcriptomic profiling analysis, flavonoid pathway-related genes in R. trigyna showed significant differences in transcript abundance under salt stress. Leucoanthocyanidin
The major anthocyanin in A. thaliana is a cyanidin derivative modified by glycosylation as well as by the addition of three acyl moieties: malonyl, p-coumaroyl, and sinapoyl. We have isolated a member of the BAHD acyltransferase family which catalyzes this malonylation reaction by combining a
The ferrous iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases catalyse two electron oxidation reactions by coupling the oxidation of substrate to the oxidative decarboxylation of 2OG, giving succinate and carbon dioxide coproducts. The evidence available on the level of incorporation of one atom
In the first reaction specific for proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) converts cyanidin to (-)-epicatechin. The glucosyltransferase UGT72L1 catalyzes formation of epicatechin 3'-O-glucoside (E3'OG), the preferred
Multi-monocistronic and multi-variate vectors were designed, built, and tested for the improved production of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The synthetic bio-parts were designed in such a way that multiple genes can be assembled using the
Flavonols are the most abundant of all the flavonoids and play pivotal roles in a variety of plants. We isolated a cDNA clone encoding flavonol synthase from Scutellaria baicalensis (SbFLS). The SbFLS cDNA is 1011 bp long, encodes 336 amino acid residues, and belongs to a family of
(Pro)anthocyanidins are synthesized by the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway with multi-layered regulatory control. Methods for the analysis of the flavonoid composition in plants are well established for different purposes. However, they typically compromise either on speed or on depth of analysis.
The ben1-1D (bri1-5 enhanced 1-1dominant) mutant was identified via an activation-tagging screen for bri1-5 extragenic modifiers. bri1-5 is a weak mutant allele of the brassinosteroid receptor gene, BRI1. Overexpression of BEN1 greatly enhances the defective phenotypes of bri1-5 plants. Removal of
As part of a research programme focused on flavonoid biosynthesis in the seed coat of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), orthologs of the BANYULS gene that encoded anthocyanidin reductase were cloned in B. napus as well as in the related species Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. B. napus genome
Coumarins belong to an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Feruloyl-CoA 6'-hydroxylase (F6'H), a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (2OGD), catalyzes a pivotal step in the biosynthesis of a simple coumarin scopoletin. In this study, we determined the 3-dimensional structure of the