Efficacy of a Methanolic Extract of Adansonia digitata Leaf in Alleviating Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress of Diabetic Rats.
Traditionally, in many countries, various parts of the Adansonia digitata (A. digitata) tree have been used in the treatment of many clinical ailments including diarrhea and dysentery. The phytochemical screening has indicated that the leaf extract of A. digitata contains flavonoids, saponins, mucilage, steroids, and alkaloids. Thus, this paper aims to evaluate the hyperglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of methanolic extract of A. digitata leaves (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) in diabetic rats. The extract was administered orally for six weeks in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The treatment with the extract caused a significant reduction in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 46.7%, 46.15%, 48.91%, 43%, 60%, 66%, 45.45%, and 30.4%, respectively, as compared to the diabetic group after the sixth week of treatment. The leaf extract also mitigated the decline of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, RBCs count, hemoglobin level, packed cell volume (PCV %), and erythropoietin concentration in diabetic rats by 31%, 33.25%, 24.72%, 51.42%, and 220.68% with respect to the diabetic group. Also, the extract maintained the level of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the diabetic rats. It also reduced the elevation in the white blood corpuscles (WBC) count in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study, therefore, indicates that methanolic extract of A. digitata leaf exerts strong antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic properties in a dose-dependent manner by improving the hematological properties and redox parameters in the experimental diabetic rats.