Effect of Aqueous Extract of Adansonia digitata Stem Bark on the Development of Hypertension in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rat Model
Background: Adansonia digitata is a plant used against cardiovascular disorders in African folk medicine. We assessed the effects of the aqueous extract of its stem bark on the development of hypertension in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.
Methods: The animals were administered L-NAME once daily for 3 weeks (25 mg/kg, i.p.), concomitantly with aqueous extract of A. digitata stem bark (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) or captopril (20 mg/kg, p.o.). Then, hemodynamic and electrocardiographic parameters, oxidative stress markers, and the lipid profile were assessed in the blood and heart, aorta, and kidney homogenates, and histopathological analyses were performed.
Results: L-NAME-induced hypertensive control animals, but not the animals concomitantly treated with A. digitata extract, displayed increases in the mean arterial blood pressure (21.64% difference, p < 0.001, vs. dose 200 mg/kg), systolic arterial blood pressure (21.33%, p < 0.001), and the diastolic arterial blood pressure (21.84%, p < 0.001). In addition, hypertensive control animals displayed (i) increases in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and creatinine levels, malondialdehyde and transaminase activities, and atherogenic index; (ii) decreases in serum HDL, catalase, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide; and (iii) aorta wall thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cell loss in the cardiac muscle and renal tissues. As captopril, the extract prevented hypertension-like changes in lipid profile, cardiac, hepatic, and renal affection indicators, and oxidative stress markers.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the extract of A. digitata has antihypertensive and antioxidant effects in L-NAME-induced hypertension rat models. These effects partly justify the traditional medicine use against cardiovascular disorders.